• A relative clause is a subordinate sentence which functions like an adjective, that is, it modifies a noun usually, and it can also modify a complete sentence.
  • It always comes immediately after the noun or sentence it modifies.
  • A relative clause is always introduced by a relative pronoun. This pronoun can sometimes be omitted.
  • As it is a complete sentence, it has the same parts as a sentence:         relative pronoun + subject + verb + objects + adverbials
  • The relative pronoun has a function in the sentence; it can be the subject, the direct object, the indirect object or the adverbial.
There are two main types of relative clauses: DEFINING and NON-DEFINING


 When the relative pronoun functions as the object, it can be omitted.

    E.g.:   I hate neighbours who make a lot of noise.
             The man ( whom ) you met yesterday is my uncle.
              Is that the film which won 7 Oscars ?
            That’s the company ( which ) I work for.


  • The pronoun THAT can never be used.
  • Commas are used to separate the main clause from the relative clause.
  • The pronoun can never be omitted.
          E.g.: My mother, who is 65, has just retired.
       Mrs Black, whose daughter goes to my school, has just           won the lottery.
          Peter, whom you have never met, is my brother.


EXERCISES: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. And if you need more ....

Rewrite these pairs of sentences by means of a relative pronoun in order to make a relative clause. If the pronoun can be omitted, put it between brackets:

1- This is the student. She came top in the exam.
2- Chris is my best friend. I’ve known him for a long time.
3- I picked up the money. It was lying on the floor.
4- My grandparents still live in the village. I was born there.
5- Mr Bentley is away from school now. His wife is having a baby.
6- The café is open all night. We had lunch there.
7- Caroline is staying with me. She is my best friend.
8- What’s the name of the man? You are getting married to him.
9- Is this the house?  You were born in it.
10- The firm is sending him to New York. He works for this firm.
      (The firm …)
11- John is Mary’s husband. I met John in town yesterday.
12- There’s the lady. Her dog was killed.
13- The man was badly injured. He was driving the car.
14- The woman was very polite. I spoke to her yesterday.
15- I’d love to visit Australia. I went there for the first time in 1987.
16- Have you got the money? I lent it to you last week.
17- She came to my house last month. I met her then.
18- My mother looked surprised. She hadn’t been expecting visitors.
19- Those are the children. Their mother took them to the park.
20- I saw Alan in town yesterday. You have just met his father.
21- The bed was uncomfortable. I was sleeping on that bed.


Do you remember how to express future in English? Check this picture.

Now, watch the video.

Click here for more information and do these exercises: 1,2 and 3.


And the grammar of the unit deals with Passive Voice and Causative Have.

For impersonal and infinitive passives, click here.
EXERCISES: 1, 2, 3 and 4.

EXERCISES:1, 2 and 3.


Exams are over and we are all a bit tired and looking forward to our Christmas holidays. One month to go and we can already feel Christmas. "Christmas is coming" is a classic  Coca-Cola advertisement in UK and USA that marks the countdown to Christmas. It was released on the 19th, so here we go.

But many other retailers have already unveiled their festive TV adverts. We are sure you will love them all and every week we will show you a couple of them. Be ready to describe them in class and give your opinion. Let us also know which one is your favourite.



And the song of the week .....



EXERCISES:1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

Now, let's revise PAST PERFECT.

EXERCISES: 1, 2 and 3.

"Practice makes perfect"